Here is a great video from the Perimeter Institute, Waterloo Ontario explaining the evidence for Dark Matter.  In this video we learn how physicists calculate the mass of a galaxy.  They calculate the mass using 2 different methods:

1) Light Method - where they calculate the mass of a galaxy by its overall brightness as compared to the brightness of individual stars.

2) Orbital Method -They can calculate the mass of a galaxy using the size, radius  and velocities of the stars in orbit.

Calculating the mass of a galaxy should produce approximately the same value for both methods.  As it turns out, when physicists use these 2 methods to calculate the mass of any galaxy, there is a big difference.

The light method assumes all the mass in the galaxy is producing light.

The orbital method does not rely on light, and basically calculates mass based on the movement of stars in orbit.  This mass is far larger than the mass calculated using the light method.  In the example given in the video, the difference between the methods is about 39 Billion suns!

This huge difference implies there is a huge mass present in the galaxies that does not produce light, does not reflect light or does not interact with any kind of light.  

The way we know this matter is present is that we see its gravitational affects on other objects in the galaxy (star movement and mass).

Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental Inc.

P.S. If you're trying to make money online and have had limited success, you should check out the 1-10 Method.

NASA's Orion spacecraft lifted off yesterday in a successful launch however does  the future of human space travel go with it? Orion is supposed to be NASA's next generation of space travel. 

Orion is intended to take humans to Mars probably within the next 20 years. This un-manned rocket launch yesterday was the first successful lift-off, orbit, re-entry and landing procedure of this system.

However, for this test, the Orion spacecraft is the capsule at the top of the Delta IV rocket, the old rocket of the 60's. Travel to deep space asteroids and Mars will be with NASA's new Space Launch System (SLS).

NASA claims that the SLS will have 10% more thrust than the Saturn V and carry 3X more payload than the Space Shuttle. The SLS will be taller than the Saturn V and combines technology from the space shuttle using its booster rockets, with the stages of the Saturn V.

NASA indicates the SLS will be the future of human space travel, taking humans to Mars by the year 2022.

Hopefully the American government will see this rocket system as a necessary development in human exploration of space and continue its funding.

Otherwise, It may be Space-X and Elon Musk who are the first humans to "boldly go where no man has gone before". 

Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental Inc.

P.S. If you're trying to make money on-line but have not succeeded to date, you should check out the 1-10 Method.



We had another awesome day on Lake Erie fishing for Jumbo Perch. Here's a video of that trip!

Jumbo perch school up in the Spring and in the Fall for about 1 month. If you can find them, they offer some great fishing action and a great feed.

I like the perch that are not too big for the table. Any perch from about 8-10 inches are the best tasting fish you will taste anywhere.

The large Jumbo's are still good eating but they are not as sweet as the 8-10 sizes.

The use a few of the following keys to finding the schools of Jumbo Perch:

1) look for the "Armada" of boats

This is an obvious starting point. I start where all the other fisherman are first.  It's highly likely that other fishermen have found the school I am looking for so I follow the other boats first.

2) Use Fish Finder to Locate 

When I approach the group of boats, I travel slowly around and through the group carefully watching my screen looking for some fish activity on the bottom. Usuallly the schools are in about 50-60 feet of water. I keep speed under 5 mph to avoid disrupting other fishermen.

3) Look for Sea Gulls

I look for sea gull activity around fishing boats. Ususally boats that are catching perch, are releasing little ones that are overcome from the bends. These small fish struggle at the surface and are then scooped up by the opportunistic sea gulls.  I find where the small fish are, the bigger ones are there too or will be moving in soon.

4) Look for Fishermen Catching

A possible good sign to a location of a school is several fishermen catching fish. I look at all the boats around me and assess the activity of the area.  If someone starts to catch fish I keep an eye on them to see if it is consistent. If it is I move in for a closer look but not too close.

5) Move Around

If I haven't caught anything in my location or if the fishing activity (of other fishermen) is low and there are few groups of sea gulls, I will be moving to a new location after about 20 minutes. Perch move around, so I do as well.

Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental Inc.

P.S. If you're interested in making money on-line but have had minimal success then you should check out the 1-10 method


One of Saturn's Moons, Titan was confirmed to have Lakes the size of Lake Superior except the lakes are not filled with water, they are filled with liquid ethane, methane and propane. This was confirmed by the Cassini–Huygens probe in 2004.

Below is a comparison of one large lake on Titan with Lake Superior (i.e they are about the same area). This is truly amazing. Can you imagine a lake the size of Lake Superior composed entirely of liquid methane?

The temperatures on Titan are about -290oF, so water could not be in liquid form there, but these petroleum hydrocarbons are liquid at those temperatures. Any water is permanently frozen into the rock of Titan.

Also ice has a very low vapour pressure at that temperature, so the atmosphere does not contain water vapour.  Therefore on Titan, it rains liquid methane!

How alien Titan is to us, but it is still within our solar system.

Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental

P.S. If you are trying to make money online and are struggling, you should check out the 1-10 method.

Although the main mission of the Rosetta Project is to investigate the history of our solar system and possibly, the origins of life in the universe and on our planet, there is another application of this mission.

The most recent historic landing of a robotic space probe on a comet by the European Space Agency was an encouraging 1st step toward defending the Earth against interplanetary objects.  This was a phenomenal achievement considering the distances involved as well as the speeds and precise control required to hit such a relatively small object hurtling through space.

It was an in-genius use of "sling-shot gravity" to get enough speed and the right trajectory to catch up to the comet that was travelling about 84,000 miles per hour. Our current rocket technology cannot achieve the speeds required catch up to asteroids and comets, so scientists needed to use the gravity of planets to assist in gradually propelling the probe to greater and greater speeds.

The landing was also nothing short of miracle engineering and communication with a robot so far away.

However, the fact that this mission took 10 years to accomplish illustrates how far the human race still has to go to provide an adequate Earth defense against a future potential asteroid or comet strike.

If a comet or asteroid ever threatens the Earth, one of the more likely defense scenarios would involve sending an "Impactor" to collide with the object in an attempt to "nudge" the asteroid or comet out of its flight path, thereby missing the Earth.

The biggest challenges in this defense scenario are:

1) building an impactor with an enormous mass, large enough to make a difference. The mass of the impactor will have to be huge, and likely would have to be built in orbit piece by piece, just like the space station, due to weight-fuel restrictions of escaping Earth's gravity. 

2) After construction is complete, the impactor would have to be propelled to speeds similar to the Rosetta devise (i.e. 84,000 mph). The only way to do this with today's technology is to use gravity of nearby planets and angular momentum (just like Rosetta) to gradually increase its speed and then hit the object at the right moment to change its trajectory. Everything in space seems to be travelling at about 50-100,000 miles per hour, so this is an enormous challenge.

3) The third important challenge is hitting the object at precisely the right time to change its flight path. When we are talking about controlling a robotic devise 100's of thousands of kilometers away, this is a huge challenge. Also,hitting it too soon or too late may be insufficient to cause enough change in trajectory.

Congratulations to the European Space Agency, who just demonstrated that 1 out of these 3 tasks is possible.

Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental Inc.



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