The mass of the universe is composed of about 70% dark energy, 25% dark matter and only 5% visible matter (what we see).  If we consider that all of the scientific theories of all mankind have focused (until recently) only on the 5% of visible matter, we realize a striking fact: we know very little about the universe.

Since the time of Edwin Hubble, Scientists now know that the universe is expanding and galaxies that are farther away from us are moving faster than those that are close by. Something is forcing those galaxies away and expanding the universe at a greater rate today than in the past.

That something is thought to be Dark Energy, or the energy of space.  Einstein calculated that empty space actually has energy, but scientist have not been able to determine its properties.  The only thing scientists can measure are the gravitational effects of Dark Energy (i.e. Dark Energy's effects on stars and galaxies that we CAN see.)

It may turn out that Dark Energy is derived from subatomic particles that are predicted by Quantum Mechanics, or that it is derived from Dark Matter (also that we cannot see) that is located within another dimension.  String Theory in Quantum Mechanics predicts the presence of other dimensions and the 1 force which transcend dimensions is gravity.  Therefore, it is possible that Dark Energy and Dark Matter could be located within another dimension.  Possibly, that is why we cannot see Dark Matter and Dark Energy with all forms of light in our dimension. Maybe we need to be within the other dimensions predicted by (Quantum Mechanics) to see them.

This is my own pure speculation, but at this point, just about anything is possible because everything we know about the universe, only involves 5% of it.  There's a long way to go.

Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental Inc.

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Charlie Ray has a TV Fishing Show called Fishful Thinking. In my opinion, it's the best fishing show on TV because Charlie provides a lot of helpful advice to both beginning and experienced anglers and he explains what he uses and why.

This week on his show he talked about a great tip for Lake Erie Walleye Fishing and he explained it very well. This is a great Walleye Fishing Tip that I Charlie explained on his show today that I intend to use this summer Fishing Walleye on Lake Erie.

Lake Erie has become extremely clear because of the booming populations of zebra mussels.  These voracious filter feeders continually filter the water of algae resulting in the increased clarity of water on Lake Erie over the last 30 years or so.

With this improved clarity, walleye are able to see a lot better than they already can, so putting a jet diver or dipsy diver close to your lure can scare off the timid Lake Erie Walleye.

Charlie gives this great tip to avoid having a deep diver too close to your bait.

We all know that it is a big advantage to get our lures away from the boat to avoid spooking walleye with the motor.  To do this we can use either regular planar boards or use the new in-line planar boards, which are fairly easy to use and you don’t need to use a mast.

 In the diagram below, I have set up what Charlie explains: you can see that he is using an in-line planar board at the water surface. Line leads down from the planar board to a swivel.  This swivel must be small enough to fit through your spool. 

The swivel is connected to 20 feet of fluorocarbon leader which is invisible underwater.  With clear Lake Erie water, presentation is everything, and it is of utmost importance because Lake Erie walleye will not see a line connected to something that is moving like a fish.

Here is the big point that Charlie stresses. He connects the jet diver to the swivel by using a simple alligator clip. He also connects a safety clip to the jet diver in case the alligator clip lets go. He also places a bead on the line about 3 feet up from the lure so that if the jet diver lets go, it will run down the line and not reach the fish. This avoids the possibility of the jet diver running into the lure, releasing the fish.

This simple tip makes incredible sense on open water, clear lakes like Lake Erie and I’m grateful to Charlie Ray for sharing it with us.


Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental Inc.

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What is Dark Energy


Astronomers are trying to determine the composition of what is probably the greatest single mystery in cosmology, Dark Energy.  This is the energy that is theoretically responsible for the ever increasing expansion of the universe.

In the early 90s it was thought that after the Big Bang almost 13 Billion years ago, the universe expanded quickly and then cooled, creating galaxies that we see today.  This expansion of the universe was thought to eventually slow down because gravity between masses would "attract" one another.

This basic theory was proven to be incorrect in the late 90s when data was obtained from the famous Hubble telescope.  Data from Hubble created more questions than answers and it was discovered that the movement of stars in galaxies was not found as predicted. Stars in outer arms of galaxies were travelling at the same speed as those on inner arms. Something was causing it.

Astronomers also found galxies that were farther away from us were travelling faster, than those galaxies close by.  Something was causing these unpredicted movement of stars.

That something is though to be Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Dark matter does not interact with all known forms of light and is thought to be some sort of sub-atomic particles that we have not been able to detect. It composes about 25% of all matter.

Dark Energy is thought to be the energy contained in space itself.  Einstein was the first to consider that empty space was not really empty. It could contain energy and space could be created as the universe expands.  Therefore the greater that space expanded, the greater the energy of space.  This could explain the more rapid expansion of space but it is still a mystery.

Check out NASA's explanation here.

When we consider that Dark Energy comprises 70% of the universe and visible matter comprises 5% of the universe, it clear that our understanding of the universe is still in its infancy.

Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental Inc.

P.S. If you're struggling to make money online, come and see how to make 10x the income with only 1 focus. 

Latest DNA evidence indicates that North American Natives came from Asia. During the peak of the last Ice age, about 21,000 years ago, the Laurentide Ice sheet was at its maximum extent, covering all of Canada and merging with the Crodilleran Ice sheet.  

At this time world wide water levels were about 300 feet lower, exposing a land bridge in western Alaska between North America and Asia. The land bridge was also covered in ice at this time but about 15,000 years ago the ice began to receed exposing the ground.

It is thought that humans from Asia made their way into North America from Asia along this land bridge.   They were following the mammoth herds which they hunted for food.

Human female skeleton found in a cave in Mexico was determined to be about 15,000 years old.  They were also able to extract DNA evidence from this skeleton and they found similar gene sequence to todays North American Natives. This was described in National Geographic magazine Jan. 2015.

This was added to DNA evidence found from the skeleton of a young male known as "clovis boy".This astounding evidence was described in National Geographic magazine Feb. 2014.

DNA evidence from both these skeletons corroborate the hypothesis that North American Natives were deived from Asia. 

Although there are still some major differences between Asians and North American Natives it is thought that as the ice receeded about 12,000 years ago, world sea levels rose, submerging the land bridge and cutting off asia from North America.

It is thought that the DNA differences developed during this time where North America was isolated from Asia.

Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental Inc.

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The human genome project is the search to identify all the genetic code in the human DNA molecule, the code responsible for evolution of humans. Every human born is 99.99% identical to other human beings.

DNA is in the nucleus of every cell in our body. It is composed of nucleic acids adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine. DNA is coded according to the sequences of these acids. 

The human Genome Project is described in this incredible NOVA program on PBS. It is the quest to read or identify all the genes making up the complete human DNA molecule. 

Identification of all human genes can lead to identification of genes responsible for all human genetic diseases and ultimately, the cures of human disease.

This incredible video describes how the genes for human genetic diseases can be identified and used to find cures fo all human genetic diseases. 

Along with this incredible discovery also comes huge responsibility of what to do with the information.  Geneticists can identify genetic diseases before they develop.

This is an excellent program and as usual, NOVA does it best.


Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental Inc.

P.S. If you're struggling to make money online, you should consider this revolutionary METHOD OF BUILDING MULTIPLE SOURCES OF INCOME on auto-pilot.

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