We vacationed in Hawaii this year and went on a tour of the active volcano Kilauea. Our tour guide Scott from Volcano Van Tours took us on an awesome journey over a hardened lava flow from 1973-82. We visited a feeder channel and the crater of the Mauna Ulu lava flow which forms part of the eastern rift zone of Kilauea.

This video does not do justice to the spectacular views we had. You view these sights in person to fully appreciate the views!

Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental Inc.

P.S. If you're struggling to make money online you should check out how millions of people are making money from home.


Here is an update to the CO2 data of 2012 compiled in a time lapse video updated to January 2014 by CIRES & NOAA.  In this amazing video, the current CO2 concentrations measured at Hawaii's Observatory at Mauna Loa and the South Pole are compared to historical CO2 measurements from gas bubbles trapped in ice cores from the south pole.

These ice cores are dated back to 800,000 years before present day and represent CO2 data for the longest period of time on record. In my opinion, these data are the most reliable CO2 measurements of the past 800,000 years.

What is most striking, the CO2 for the past 800,000 years did not exceed 300 and most averages were about 278 ppm.  As shown in the video data at January 2014 the highest ever recorded average CO2 in Hawaii (Mauna Loa Observatory) was 398 ppm, and still rising.

How can ANYONE have any doubt about what is going on? CO2 is rising due to burning of fossil fuels faster than the Earth can absorb it.  The effects of this increase of CO2 will be devasting to human civilization. Politicians who ignore this scientific fact will be made accountable for their inaction.

Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental Inc.

P.S. If you’re having trouble making money online you should consider these ways that millions of people are making cash from home.


It is a tribute to Einstein’s genius. All of the theories calculated by Albert Einstein in the early 1900’s have been tested thoroughly and to date, his theories have passed every test. 

Einstein’s Theory of Relativity is considered today to be absolute genius but in his day there was considerable skepticism and doubt. This was partly because nobody could do the mathematics at the time, and the technology to test the theories was not available.

However today, the technology is available to perform tests of Einstein’s theories and the following are the 6 Great Tests that Einstein’s theories have passed:

  1. The Precession of Planet Mercury

It was long observed that Isaac Newton’s Laws of gravity didn’t quite work when it came to predicting the orbit of Mercury around the Sun.  For many years the scientific community thought that the reason for the “precession” of Mercury was caused by an unknown planet yet to be discovered. Although they never found the planet, they gave it the name “Vulcan”. Then came Einstein in 1915 who calculated that space and time are actually warped by enormous objects with massive gravity.  Einstein’s calculations predicted the precession of Mercury’s orbit EXACTLY.

  1. Warping of Space and Time by Massive Objects Will Also Bend and Distort Light from Distant Objects

Einstein calculated that massive objects have sufficient gravity that they warp space and time which would also bend and distort light from distant objects.  If this were true, distant objects would be appear to be duplicated to the observer.  This theory has been proven time and time again to be correct by the Hubble Space telescope. Hubble images are so clear and precise that light from distant galaxies are visibly duplicated, exactly as Einstein’s calculations predicted.

Today, this phenomenon is known by astronomers as “gravitational lensing”, where the light from distant galaxies is bent and distorted by closer massive objects duplicating their image. 

  1. Gravitational Red-shifting of Light and Time

Einstein calculated that the warping of space and time caused by massive objects will also distort light from distant objects.  Light moving away from the observer would be shifted toward the Red Wavelengths of Light Spectrum whereas objects moving toward the observer would be shifted toward the Blue Light Spectrum. Sure enough a test of Einstein’s theory came in 1959 when a Harvard Professor set up an experiment to prove this. Using radioactive iron in an elevator shaft they determined the minute difference in gamma rays received by a detector at the top of the shaft caused the light to be shifted toward red light spectrum, exactly as Einstein’s calculations predicted.

Warping (slowing) of time was also calculated by Einstein.  He predicted that time is slowed as an observer gets closer to a massive objects.  This was proven by very precise clocks placed in satellites in orbit around the Earth.  If Einstein was correct, clocks in orbit would be farther away from clocks on Earth so the orbital clocks should be faster.  After numerous checks, NASA found that clocks in satellites ran faster (by 1/1 millionth of a second) than similar ones on the ground, again confirming Einstein’s calculations.

4)Warping of Space Would Distort Radio Waves in Vicinity of Immense Objects

If massive objects distort space, then radio waves sent from objects in the vicinity of massive objects would be distorted by warped space.  In essence, they would take longer to travel to a given observer than an object that is not in the vicinity of a massive object.

This was proven using the Cassini satellite en route to Saturn. Radio waves from the Cassini Satellite were delayed due to it presence near the massive Saturn.  Again this distortion of radio waves was exactly as Einstein calculated.

5) Equivalence Principle

Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity states that all bodies fall through a gravitational field at the same rate regardless of their mass or structure. Therefore all objects fall at the same rate on Earth as they would on the moon, on Jupiter etc.

This was proven to be correct by Apollo 15 Astronaut, Dave Scott on the moon when he dropped a hammer and a feather and they fell at the same rate, striking the lunar surface at the same time, again exactly as Einstein predicted.

6) Space and Time Are Warped and Dragged by Massive Objects

Einstein calculated that massive objects warp space so scientists determined an experiment using gyroscopes placed in satellites aligned to a certain reference star and they looked for changes in the alignment of these gyroscopes to measure how far off alignment would be caused by the massive Earth.  Again they detected tiny misalignments, that could only be caused by the warping of space by the Earth, again exactly as Einstein predicted.

 Therefore, General Relativity has stood up to all these Great Tests over the past 100 years and only now the scientific community has come to appreciate the true genius of Albert Einstein.  He was truly a genius way ahead of his time.

The 6 tests of Einstein’s Theory courtesy of Discover Magazine.

Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental Inc.

P.S. If you’re having trouble making money online you should consider these ways that millions of people are making cash from home.


Evolution through Natural Selection is scientific fact. This is based on an enormous volume of evidence in the scientific database to date. Natural Selection occurs through the "passing on" of good genetic traits that benefit a species to survive.  Good traits are essentially "passed on" to daughters and sons because they help them to survive and further pass on good traits.  Bad traits, if passed on to progeny, will eventually die out (given enough time) because they offer a disadvantage to that species that eventually leads to their demise.  When a species with a bad trait dies, so does the bad trait. 

So how does this explain the fact that humans still have numerous genetic diseases present within our genome today?  We would have thought that 2 million years of Evolution Through Natural Selection would have selectively removed all those diseases that posed a threat to our human existence.

One researcher has an intriguing theory and believes he can explain it. In his book, Survival of the Sickest, Sharone Moalem argues that Evolution Through Natural Selection has actually preserved certain diseases within the human genome because at some point back in Human history, these diseases actually provided a certain key benefit to our human ancestors that allowed them to survive hash climatic conditions, such as Ice Age or infectious plagues. 

For example, he explains, the Bubonic Plague (a.k.a The Black Death) killed 25,000,000 people in Europe during the 1800s. To put this in perspective, this is approximately equivalent to the number of people killed during World War I and World War II COMBINED. The plague killed so many people because it was highly contagious, its cause was unknown and the way it was spread was also unknown.

The key to stopping the plague was not due to some revolutionary cure discovered by a brilliant physician, but to our remarkably resilient human genome.  As it was discovered many years later that certain people actually survived the plague. It was through the study of those survivors that it was discovered some people had the necessary genes to stop the plague in its tracks. Therefore the human genome through Natural Selection, developed the key to stopping the plague.

The Bubonic Plague, was a bacteria that thrived on iron. After entering the body, the immune system would send out its white blood cells to consume the invader. However, the plague cells would use the iron of the white blood cells to grow and multiply.  Acting like a “Trojan Horse” these cells would ultimately spread to other cells and be carried to other parts of the body, within the white blood cells (particularly the lymphatic system) spreading.  This remarkable adaptation of the Bubonic Plague cells was extremely efficient, killing approximately 60% of all those infected in four days if untreated.

Iron is abundant in the cells of a normal human being, and this is why the Bubonic Plague was so effective.  It would use the body’s own iron-rich immune system against it.  However, the plague cells did not due well in iron-poor conditions.

Hemochromatosis is a genetic disorder (although not always genetic) that comes from the accumulation of iron in the body.  In this disease, iron enters the body through food we eat, but continues to build up instead of being removed after the body has used all it can. The result is essentially “Iron Poisoning”. 

As it turns out, people with Hemochromatosis do not have high Iron in all cells of their bodies.  Unlike healthy people, white blood cells of their immune system are actually “IRON POOR”.  So you see, this genetic trait of the disease actually makes them ideally suited to fight the Iron-seeking Bubonic Plague Bacteria.

As the plague bacteria entered the body of a person with Hemochromatosis, the White blood cells would attack and ingest the bacteria. However, as the white blood cells are devoid of Iron, the Bubonic Plague Bacteria had no way of surviving and multiplying.  Therefore, it was stopped in its track.

This was one of the main keys in halting the Bubonic Plague which devastated Europe in the 1400s.  The human genome, through Natural Selection, had developed a specific beneficial trait against a specific intruder bacterium to end the most devastating plague in human history. This benefit (although an iron accumulating disease) was passed on to future generations because they survived the plague to pass it on.

This is an intriguing book, describing an intriguing theory and has numerous other examples and corroborating data that I will describe in future posts. I highly recommend reading it.


Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental Inc.


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I saw the movie, read the book then read the "Science of Interstellar" by Kip Thorne, the renowned physicist that was the scientific consultant for the movie.  I couldn't get enough of the movie and then the science explained by Kip Thorne, just put it all together for me. I loved the book.

To say the least, I loved the movie, not only for the amazing special affects but for it's consistency with current scientific theories.  Kip Thorne made sure of that.

The movie was conceived by Kip and his wife who at first had Steven Spielberg lined up as director.  Spielberg loved the script and would have been the director had it not been for some legal contractual obligation he had with a major motion picture company. So Spielberg had to decline and the hunt was on for another director.

Kip Thorne's wife was already aquainted with Christopher Nolan's wife and so they talked. Now as it seems, the script for Interstellar was written by Christopher Nolan's brother so it didn't take much convincing to get Chris Nolan on board.

Kip had only 1 condition, that the movie had to reflect the current scientific theories and principals as closely as possible. Christopher Nolan had no problem with this, so Interstellar was born.

To me, the scientific principles were elegantly portrayed and this made the movie extremely satisfying to me. Of course there were some assumptions, but everything in Interstellar was based on equations and calculations made by Kip Thorne.  He gave these equations to the special affects guys who used them in their computer graphics programs! You can't get any more accurate than that!

Niel DeGrasse Tyson also commented on how closely Interstellar portrayed science.

Obvoiusly, knowing a little about the scientific principles makes the movie more enjoyable.  So if you have not seen Interstellar yet, read up on black holes and worm holes and how they distort space and time.  Read about Einstein's Theory of Relativity too because his true genius is only now being proven as we now have the technology to test his theories, all of which have been proven correct.

Leaning a little bit about these principles will make viewing Interstellar a truly enjoyable experience.

I purposely did not go into the details of the movie because I am not one to spoil the suspense and anticipation. I am just going to say, that this movie portrayed scientific principles as accurately as I have ever seen (I saw it twice). It also portrayed the "cruel reality of relativity". You'll know what I mean when you see it.

Oh, and make sure you see it on the big screen... Gargantua needs to be seen on a REALLY big screen!

Al Maddalena

Maddalena Environmental Inc.

P.S. If you're having trouble making money online, you should check out how millions of people are making cash from home.


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